The religious building, inaugurated in 1886, stood as the most significant Palatinate synagogue for 52 years. The main architectural feature of Moorish-Byzantine-style, 37-metre-high building was the cupola with its four small corner turrets. The Nazis destroyed the synagogue in the late summer of 1938, even before Kristallnacht took place.

The memorial at Synagogenplatz was completed in 2003. Two seven-meter high fragments of wall from the former north entrance to the synagogue, which according to historical photographic documents continued to stand despite demolition efforts, were reconstructed in red and yellow sandstone from the nearby Picard quarry. On the back of the fragments are carved the names of the 192 Kaiserslautern Holocaust victims.

The installed spy-glasses, offer the possibility to see a virtual reconstruction of the synagogue.